Yedda Clark. Project Management. July 21st , 2021.
Generally, projects are split into three phases Initiation, Implementation and Closure. Each phase then has multiple checkpoints that must be met before the next phase begins. The degree to which a project is managed will depend on the size of the project. For a complex project in a large organization that involves a number of people, resources, time and money, a more structured approach is needed, and there will be more steps built into each stage of the project to ensure that the project delivers the anticipated end result. For a simple project in a small organization, agreed milestones, a few checklists and someone to co-ordinate the project may be all that is required.
I cannot stress just how critical it is to assemble a powerful team. It's your responsibility as the leader to continue to build up your team. Team improvement is one area that must take place constantly all through your project, not only at the beginning. To be able to grow your team, make sure you carry out team development exercises.
I'm a huge supporter of the fact that you need to start building the team very early on - even if it is just part-time assignment to your project! Do not wait until you have finished the complete plan exclusively on your own. On large projects, the team is everything - be constant in your quest of building a strong team. Your team is the most powerful asset you will have as a project manager. Never forget this!
This is a very important component of the project that is often overlooked. Think of the Project Charter as your "Permission" to continue. Why do you need permission you may ask? Because 80% of project failures occur from a lack of communication. Have you ever had your boss tell you what they needed from you and then ask you to something completely different? I'll bet that not only did you clarify exactly what they wanted, but you spent an enormous amount of time creating it. Only in the end to have them tell you that you must have misunderstood. A Project Charter is really your protection against this type of mismanagement and miscommunication.
From this list you must then identify what is known as 'Key Success Criteria', and these are the objectives that are 'key' to the success or failure of the project - even if other objectives are met. These obviously vary from project to project. Once the project has been given the go ahead, then a contract document is drawn up and the project sponsor uses this to give formal agreement to funding the project and for the project to begin. The initiation phase is then considered to be completed.
A project is generally initiated by a perceived need in an organization. Being a one off undertaking, it will have a start and an end, constraints of budgets, time and resources and involves a purpose built team. Project teams are made up of many different team members, for example, end users/customers (of a product or service), representatives from Information Technology (IT), a project leader, business analysts, trainers, the project sponsor and other stakeholders.
So far as the mechanics of the Charter, here are some definitions. The "objective" is really just stating what the project should accomplish. The scope of the project is simply defining the parameters or boundaries of what will be done to accomplish the project. The things that need to be done to make the project a success are called deliverable. These are packages of work that need to be done, either individually or collectively, for the project to move along as planned. Finally, the authorize are the ones that have the authority to say yes or no to the project and ultimately the ones that are going to pay for it. The authorize are also called Stakeholders...not because they love beef, but because these are actually the people that have the highest "stake" in the project being done right. Sticking with our wedding planning theme, the stakeholders might be the Bride, Groom, Parents and the minister.
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